Sea floor dating
In the journal DNA is not supposed to last that long. The trio referenced a 2012 report led by Morten Allentoft, now with the Natural History Museum of Denmark's Centre for Geo Genetics.Allentoft used carbon dates of extinct moa (giant, flightless bird) bones to calibrate a mitochondrial DNA decay rate, finding its half-life at only 521 years.Long-age believers insist that hundreds of meters of sediment require at least hundreds of thousands of years to deposit.Given that DNA degrades relatively quickly, the team faced the significant challenge of explaining how DNA could persist long enough to get buried beneath that much sediment.The Bering Sea DNA they discovered joins prior finds that similarly challenge deep time.
This paradox is another on the list that was solved by plate tectonics.
More powerful echo-sounders used explosives set off at the surface to explore the rock below the water.
The ocean crust has a roughly constant thickness, around 7 kilometres thick. On top there is on average around half a kilometre of sediment (figures from Wikipedia: Ocean Crust).
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They assumed too that the rock at the bottom of the ocean floor was made of the same basic stuff as the continents. Rather than the featureless void they had expected, the ocean floors were riddled with complicated mountain ranges and valleys.